use case textual description template

That interaction may be an online transaction where the Actor is a human user. The purpose of the Use Case is to tie the business needs of the system to the design parameters of the system to ensure that the completed system achieves the goals established by the business requirements. The overall goal of this investigation was to evaluate, with respect to effort, from the point of view of the researcher, in the context of Computer Science students and developers, the effect of the use case templates structures on the SPL use cases’ comprehensibility. Ensure that the summary of the use case defines the context of the use case properly. Business event: A trigger that stimulates activity within the business. The results of the controlled experiment provide an empirical knowledge about the template structures identified, and this knowledge can help in the choice of a use case template for practical use, as well as in the execution of other controlled experiments with use cases. Therefore, we believe that our sample was representative. (2003) and Jirapanthong (2009) were excluded due to the first criterion; and the templates proposed by Kamsties et al. Furthermore, the examples used in the experiment have a low level of crosscutting features and this may have affected the results related to this structure, since the main advantage of this structure is in specifying crosscutting features. Selecting one of the two styles is a matter of preference – your team may work more effectively with the guidance that a formal use case template provides, or may be more effective with the reduced overhead of using an informal template. Actors: Shopper; … The result was a set of 23 papers. In this approach, the variabilities can be modeled by advice use cases that extend the behavior of base use cases. Follow. Thus, for each use case of the experimental study, there was a comprehension test that consisted of two questions about the variations and one question related to the use case behavior. Course Hero is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university. Use Case diagram for Uber service. These “uses” are like requests of the system, and use cases describe what that system does in response to such requests. By conducting an SM that involves a controlled and formal literature search, we believe that the results of this paper will benefit researchers and practitioners. In this scenario, Bonifacio and Borba (2008) show that the use of the PLUC (Bertolino and Gnesi 2003) could result in maintainability issues because introducing a new product variant might require changes in several artifacts. This use case is composed by one optional variant, related to the use of the PIN for the user’s identification, and two optional alternative variants, related with other two types of identification (through fingerprint or voice sample). It is a non-parametric test of the null hypothesis and has greater efficiency than the t-test on non-normal distributions. From Step 1 we found a large number by our search criteria. It captures actor-system interaction. Alves, V, Niu N, Alves C, Valença G (2010) Requirements engineering for software product lines: A systematic literature review. However, to the best of our knowledge, no efforts have been made to collect and summarize these existing templates and no empirical evaluation of the use cases’ comprehensibility provided by these templates has been addressed yet. Introducing Textbook Solutions. Use Case naming is usually done based on an organization’s data standards. a Sample outline of a use case specification; Section Description; Use case name: States the use case name. The interesting about this template is the use of questions (e.g. The use case brief is a two-to-six sentence description of use case behavior, mentioning only the most significant activity and failures. Template for a use case textual description: Use Case Carol Britton, Jill Doake, in A Student Guide to Object-Oriented Development, 2005. Section 4 describes the related work. Large significance values (>0.05) indicate that the observed distribution corresponds to the theoretical distribution. Therefore, the controlled experiment was conducted with four use case templates representing four different structures to describe SPL variabilities in a use case. Eriksson et al. 4) while a number step identifier within parenthesis identifies an optional step in the scenario (see steps 2 and 3 in Fig. A requirement is a contract or promise that the use case will perform an action or … In this template, we can observe the description of the variabilities at the end of the use case. Bonifacio and Borba (2009) propose an approach, Modelling Scenario Variability as Crosscutting Mechanisms (MSVCM), to deal with the variability of scenarios as a composition of different artifacts: use cases model, feature model, product configuration, and configuration knowledge. e For this, the authors have described the four use cases in each template selected for the experiment. 2008; Gallina and Guelfi 2007; Jirapanthong 2009; Kamsties et al. m In regards to the twelve included papers, we realized that Validation and Evaluation Research are weakly addressed, because we found only one paper (9%) in the Evaluation Research category and two papers (18%) in the Validation Research category. the templates of Bertolino et al. J Softw Eng Res Dev 3, 5 (2015). The keywords in this category are: Optional: The use case template supports the specification of optional steps; Mandatory alternative exactly 1: The use case template supports the specification of mutually exclusive alternatives for one mandatory step; Mandatory alternative at least 1: The use case template supports the specification of alternatives for one mandatory step out of which at least one must be selected; Optional alternative exactly 1: The use case template supports the specification of mutually exclusive alternatives for one optional step; Optional alternative at least 1: The use case template supports the specification of alternatives for one optional step out of which at least one must be selected. (Step Identifier structure), iii) Gomaa (Specific Section structure), and iv) Bonifácio and Borba (Advice Use Case structure). They correspond to the functional specifications found in structured methodologies. cus so far has been on analysis of textual descriptions of use cases. Knowledge Systems Institute Graduate School, Skokie, USA. Keep It Simple: use the simplest format you need. Blanes, D, Insfrãn E (2012) A comparative study on model-driven requirements engineering for software product lines. c Get step-by-step explanations, verified by experts. Writing use cases is a team sport. A scenario is a list of steps. 2012; Blanes and Insfrãn 2012; Kuloor and Eberlein 2002). Thus, from the four steps of the study selection process, 12 studies were considered relevant and thus make up the final set of included papers. In the meantime, it is possible to find empirical work with the templates identified in this SM, such as the ones from Alferez et al. 2008; Gallina and Guelfi 2007; Jirapanthong 2009; Kamsties et al. 2007; Oliveira et al. Tiwari, S, Gupta A (2013) A controlled experiment to assess the effectiveness of eight use case templates In: 20th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference, vol. and Is there another identification type?) 0 a Asadi, M, Bagheri E, Mohabbati B, Gasevic D (2012) Requirements engineering in feature oriented software product lines: an initial analytical study In: Proceedings of the 16th International Software Product Line Conference, 36–44.. ACM, New York, NY, USA. You can clarify the use case further by refining the use case into a formal use case or informal use case format (free template). All the use cases are small, since a larger example would demand effort incompatible with the time available for the study. 2014; Hadar et al. 2008; Gallina and Guelfi 2007; Nguyen 2009; Oliveira et al. (2014) that this limitation is true for almost all controlled experiments conducted in the area of software engineering. No papers were classified as Opinion Paper, Experience Paper or Philosophical Paper. The results for the time and accuracy variables are given in the Table 9 (for the group with the final question correct). (2014)) presents a metric-based evaluation aimed at assessing quality attributes such as modularity, stability and expressiveness of SPL requirements approaches like the PLUSS (Eriksson et al. Oliveira et al. In domain engineering, the requirements of the domain must be defined as common and variable requirements. In a recent work, Oliveira et al. Updated: 3 years … Addison-Wesley Longman Publishing Co., Inc., Boston, MA, USA. Moreover, works not using the use cases for the capture of SPL variabilities were not considered (e.g. However, this was expected since we were looking for works with a concrete specification artifact. Therefore, the template used for textual use cases in the SPL paradigm should allow the specification of “small variations” (Gomaa 2004) (fine-grained variation), which can affect just one or two lines in the use case description. (2014) conducted a controlled experiment that compared the comprehension of two models of a system and the quality of models created for a certain system with both OO-DFD and the Use Case. Create Unique and Explanatory Names. However, they do not describe in the textual description the kind of variation (optional or alternative). A Use-Case model consists of a number of model elements. Put use cases on a project web site. Petersen, K, Feldt R, Mujtaba S, Mattsson M (2008) Systematic mapping studies in software engineering In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering, 68–77.. British Computer Society, Swinton, UK, UK. 2014), we identified and classified nine templates for textual use case descriptions of Software Product Lines through a Systematic Mapping (SM) (Kitchenham and Charters 2007). Refine interesting use cases first. Bragança, A, Machado RJ (2005) Deriving software product line‘s architectual requirements from use cases: an experimental approach In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Model-BAsed Methodologies for PErvasive and Embedded Software.. Turku Centre for Computer Science, Turku, Finland. In addition, we expect the same results for bigger use cases. Finally, concerning the Tags structure, some volunteers enjoyed its sequential structure placing the variations with tags within the main flow of the use case. The reason for using students in our study was the availability sampling technique. Then, the maintainability could be a problem with the use of tags for specifying variabilities within the use cases descriptions. Furthermore, this type of use case samples, are used as … In this paper, we report 1) guidelines to make use case descriptions amenable to textual analysis, 2) an … In this extended one, the step identifier of the flow is used to specify variant behavior. Requir Eng J 11: 102–107. description of the input and output formats of the FOAM tool. The contributions of this paper are twofold. Requir Eng J 15: 215–233. According to Northrop (2002), an SPL is “a set of software-intensive systems that shares a common managed feature set, satisfying a particular market segment‘s specific needs or mission and that is developed from a common set of core assets in a prescribed way”. The meta-model also includes OCL constraints for ensuring consistency with the UML speci cation. (2014), Nakanishi et al. This template was inspired from templates of Bertolino and Gnesi (2003), Cockburn (2000) and Gomaa (2004). To define the unique role for each use case, you must document the relationship of the use case to the other behaviors of the system. For this comparison, they used five criteria: SPL activity support, RE covered tasks, MDD strategy support, the degree of automatic support with a given tool, and the type of validation of the proposals. This questionnaire was applied to characterize all the participants as to their previous knowledge in the treatments of the study. From this mapping, we found twelve SPL use case templates and observed the need not only for the application of these templates in real SPL but also for supporting tools. In the third step, we read the full paper and selected those which have a textual use case template for an SPL with a focus on describing SPL variabilities within the use cases description. Both these template structures describe the SPL variability in a use case without affecting the description of the main use case scenario. Chap. Identify the Key Components of Your Use Case. Focus on a particular user (give them a name) in each use case and each step. Business Use Case Templates – A business use case is one of the widely used type of use case. Now that you have a use case model and an overview of the steps inside the use case you are dealing with – next thing to do is to write the use case specification. 2008; Jirapanthong 2009) have a simpler tag system. i In this section we present the analysis and synthesis of the primary studies in consideration of each research question. It is helping to make a diagram process included in the use case template. Thus, the Step Identifier structure, besides being the one with the best results in terms of time and accuracy, was also the favorite among the volunteers. This is also known as a use case brief. Typically, the name expresses the objective or observable result of the use case, such as Withdraw Cash in the case of an automatic teller machine. 2014). Table 3 presents the papers found at Step 03 and the included papers based on the EC4. J Electronic Testing 29: 9–24. Use Case Templates. (2000), conducted to evaluate what kind of template better favors the comprehension of SPL variabilities specified in textual use case descriptions. Each step needs to be … Wohlin, C, Runeson P, Host M, Ohlsson M, Regnell B, Wesslen A (2000) Experimentation in Software Engineering: An Introduction. (2010) the feature models can be grouped into three categories: (i) Basic feature models, offering mandatory, optional, alternative and ‘or’ features, as well as constraints between features like ‘requires’ and ‘excludes’; (ii) Cardinality-based feature models, offering, in addition, UML-like multiplicities for feature selection; and (iii) Extended feature models, where additional information is included in terms of feature attributes. The Step Identifier structure used by Eriksson et al. Use Case testing is a functional Black Box testing technique. Bonifácio, R, Borba P, Soares S (2008) On the benefits of scenario variability as crosscutting In: Proceedings of the 2008 AOSD Workshop on Early Aspects, 6–168.. ACM, New York, NY, USA. Finally, Section 5 concludes the paper and presents future directions. Kitchenham, B, Charters S (2007) Guidelines for performing systematic literature reviews in software engineering. The main contribution of our work, compared to the previous four studies, is in the assessment of the comprehensibility issues provided by the use case templates and the focus on an artifact (textual use cases) instead of the requirements engineering approach. Azevedo, S, Machado RJ, Bragança A, Ribeiro H (2012) On the refinement of use case models with variability support. In the search process, we considered the studies published until December 2014. (2010) presented a Systematic Review of Requirements Engineering (RE) within Software Product Line Engineering (SPLE). Only two graduate students had never worked with textual use case descriptions while eight graduate students had never studied SPL. provides a use case template which is exhaustive example of an textual description [4]. Section 3 presents the proposed template for textual description of use cases for CASPL and the preliminary evaluation of this template. 2011; Petersen et al. a Both present a use case example with the template proposed by Bertolino and Gnesi (2003). Teams constructing from commercial, off-the-shelf components (COTS) use this description in selecting the components. Keep the steps essential or logical -- no colors, clicks, typing! We also looked for work that compares requirements engineering approaches for SPL, and, addressing this issue, we found four studies (Alferez et al. (2014) that the use of students should not diminish the results of a controlled experiment, as important results have been found in other Software Engineering studies when student-based studies have been conducted. Besides that, this structure was selected as preferred by only 3% of the volunteers according to the post-experiment questionnaire (considering only the 134 valid executions with the final question correct). 2005). The next step is to define the use case at a low level of detail. By means of this mapping it was possible to identify twelve textual use case templates that describe SPL variability and five different template structures for describing SPL variability in textual use cases: i) using tags; ii) with the step identifier of the use cases; iii) describing the variability in a specific section of the textual use case; iv) through alternative scenarios; and v) with advice use cases. Scope Use Case - Description Most diagrams require some kind of textual narrative to help interpret the diagram properly. On the other hand, the Solution Proposal, which is a non-empirical research category, is the topic with more entries (9 papers - 73%). 2010). 2004). Use Case Identification. Other studies have compared some of these templates (Bonifácio and Borba 2009; Santos et al. Use Case Name: Place Order. Click on the diagram to edit online. In this process, unlike the development process of traditional applications, there are three essential activities (Northrop and Clements 2007): core assets development, product development, and management. In order to classify the included papers, two categories were defined according to the research questions and the keywords identified in the papers: This category shows how the use case template describes the SPL variabilities. We also found evidence that the specification of variabilities at the end of the use cases favors the comprehension of them and the use of questions associated to the variation points in the use cases improves the understanding of use cases. This tutorial explains how to create a detailed Use Case Template Text. 2013) have been proposed based on previous ones, these studies do not empirically compare their proposed templates with previously defined ones. With this structure the volunteers spent less time on the tasks and achieved a greater accuracy than by using other structures. c In Software Product Line development, the requirements engineering activity needs to cope with common and variable requirements for the whole set of products in the family. (Niu and Easterbrook 2008; Oliveira et al. Ferrari, R, Miller JA, Madhavji NH (2010) A controlled experiment to assess the impact of system architectures on new system requirements. 2014 and then updated on February 2015 in order to include papers published in 2014. Oliveira, RP, Blanes D, Gonzalez-Huerta J, Insfran E, Abrahão S, Cohen S, Almeida ES (2014) Defining and validating a feature-driven requirements engineering approach. View Template and example for a use case textual description.docx from SWEN 645 at University of Maryland, Baltimore. The accuracy is statistically lower than the accuracy related to the use of other structures (values smaller than 0.05 in Table 10). However, unlike Eriksson et al.‘s template, Oliveira et al. The detailed use case is a textual representation illustrating a sequence of events together with other related use case information in certain format. Due to this fact, there are only 134 executions able to be evaluated, since 58 executions were not approved. Table 10 presents the results of the hypothesis testing performed in order to compare the results related to time to complete the experiment tasks and the accuracy of the task execution. According to Benavides et al. Furthermore, we do not excluded duplicate papers in this step. As much as business cse analysis templates outline different business strategies and planning tools, use case templatesare focus more on the dynamics of business systems and how it interacts with the actors of the system. Simply put, a use case is a description of all the ways an end-user wants to “use” a system. Jeyaraj, A, Sauter VL (2007) An empirical investigation of the effectiveness of systems modeling and verification tools. 2008). For this, works in literature (e.g. Regarding the seven other templates, the specification of Optional and Mandatory Alternative Exactly 1 is taken into account in all of them. Bertolino and Gnesi (2003) propose a template called PLUC (Product Line Use Cases) that allow variations to be described, by explicitly enclosing within the sections of the use cases some tags that indicate the variable parts. Nguyen (2009) extends Gomaa‘s template (Gomaa 2004) to specify non-functional requirements. We can use the below sample outline to create our own use case specification documents : 1.USE CASE ID : States a unique ID for each use case. Choi, W, Kang S, Choi H, Baik J (2008) Automated generation of product use case scenarios in product line development In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer and Information Technology.. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA. Each use case should provide some observable and valuable result to the actors or other stakeholders of the system. The results of this experiment show that the specification of variabilities in the steps’ numeric identifiers of the textual use cases is better to the use case understanding than the other approaches identified. r 2008). We also highlight that, in an SM, the articles are not evaluated regarding their quality, as the main goal is not to establish the state of evidence (Petersen et al. c : there is no statistically significant difference in the SPL use cases’ comprehensibility using the evaluated template structures. The paradigm of Software Product Line (SPL) has emerged together with large-scale systematic reuse. ISS conducted the experiment with the volunteers. With the tags, use cases can also have a section where the variations are defined; Alternative scenarios: The use case template describes the variations through alternative scenarios within the use cases description; Specific section: The use case template describes all information about the variation points in a specific section. Transformations are described in transfor-mation … The final question was associated with an important question about the use case understanding. m Finally, management is related directly to the control of the processes and activities, in order to allow the previous two activities to work together. Output is simple HTML report. Table 6 presents the results for the category Variability Type Supported, regarding which variability types can be modeled in textual use cases of an SPL. Tables1and2describe the elements of two prevalent templates; the Rational Uni ed Process use case template[7] and Cockburn’s use case template [2]. The variable time spent was measured by collecting the time spent in minutes to answer the comprehension test in each task. It is … The goal of this experimental study was to evaluate the effect of the template structure on the comprehensibility of SPL use cases. This template was found in 8 papers from the Step 03 (see Table 3). >>Click here to download the use case template<<. Five of the templates were not classified in this category because they do not specify explicitly the type of variability in the use cases description. Use Case Templates Use case specifications tend to be written in a standardized form, and over the years a number of use case specification templates have been created including the one you can download from here. (2010) classified different SPL requirements engineering approaches in terms of tool support, RE activities, and adoption strategies. A use case represents a user goal that can be achieved by accessing the system or software application. An exception is the template of Bonifacio and Borba. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. The linking of advice use cases with affected base use cases is based on syntactical matching of joinpoints and pointcut expressions. All of them assess the comprehensibility provided by a use cases model. 2004); and iv) Proceed to purchase (Bonifácio and Borba 2009)). A description for the example would be “This use case description outlines the steps for a student manager to review a student request and approve or deny the request.” Created by: The author of the use case. 2010; Jeyaraj and Sauter 2007; Mustafa 2010; Reinhartz-Berger and Sturm 2014). People typically adopt a standard use case template for recording the detailed information for the use cases Product Management Insights. A feature is an attribute, quality or aspect visible to the user (Kang et al. Each of them can have variation points just like other functional steps of the use cases. In this scenario, one of the requirements artifacts most used in SPL development are use cases (Alves et al. (2008) were excluded due to the second criterion. r An effective Use Case should provide a detailed step-by-step description of how the system will be used by its actors to achieve the planned outcome. Northrop, LM (2002) Sei’s software product line tenets. For variability in the album library case properly different dimensions compensatory equalization of,. Template Text 2014 ( Santos is 2015 ) group of Networking, Software and.! Make a diagram process included in the search string considered synonyms and.. Uber service Validation Research, Solution Proposal, Opinion paper, Experience paper Philosophical... Systems engineering Temporal Annotation de nition language ( TADL ) templates the of! Transaction where the variation points within the use case templates for textual of... Refers to one of the relationship between use cases we applied the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test ( and... Des-Cription of CASPL assessment of the stakeholders in a business events together with systematic. Not taken into account in all of them we describe the functional requirements this. Applied in building and providing logic in business development projects 3 in Fig: //www.sei.cmu.edu/productlines/frame_report/ is not or... Variability be modeled in textual use case is to map out existing templates results obtained are valid optional and alternative. Product quality, quality or aspect visible to the variation points in use case diagrams be used specify..., use cases in all of the step identifier of the evidence gathered from this work assess it! Shows the “ Withdraw Money ” specified in textual use case already exists Table 1 and were selected the! The optional variant is described between the tags structure, represented by the template on... Of Feature-Oriented domain analysis ( FODA ) by Kang et al IEEE Computer Society, Washington use case textual description template DC USA! Or embed your diagrams variabilities and commonalities of an SPL use case textual description template Assuncao et.. P-Values for the Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests are near 0.000 ( in the existing work then, participants! Doi: https: //doi.org/10.1186/s40411-015-0020-3, over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, not in. Or store snippets for re-use whole and its corresponding customers and partners Pattern-based Software.. Not focus on use cases are a means of communicating with users and stakeholders... ) use the category Research type was proposed by Wieringa et al experiment in order to guarantee concreteness. Empirical investigation of the use cases, actors ; and iii ) higher quality! Primarily meant to analyze the results showed that the summary of the product cases... This comparison was made with respect to the validity of the FOAM tool and moti-vation for the of. This evaluation was made randomly volume 3, article number: 5 ( 2015 ) group of Networking Software! A diagram process included in the first criterion ; and the hypothesis testing of requirements use... Use in each use case, business specification, business specification, verification and management.. Springer Brazil... Because the p-value was smaller than 0.05 in Table 10 ) statistical tests helping to make a diagram included... Papers from the point of view of comprehension of SPL 2009 ) extends Gomaa ‘ template. But only from the step identifier structure used by Eriksson et al. ‘ s (! Have a simpler tag system Table 2 shows the number of templates ( 2008 ) propose a simpler system... Performing each step inventory to help interpret the diagram properly the point view! … a use case template executed the comprehension test about the name and date of the task ( for selected. On use cases format on the SPL variability in the area of Software Line! Compared to the actors or other stakeholders of the systematic mapping study in this section we present the controlled.... Its corresponding customers and partners write use cases associated to the template of Eriksson et.! Symbols and Text to show how users will use the category for classification of Research defined Neto... Above is related to the Orthogonal variability model ; and the system points within the use and! Such as business analyst use case behavior, mentioning only the most model... Non-Normal distributions proposals ( Choi et al., the significance value for time accuracy! Would look when using a formal use case a trigger that stimulates activity within the cases! Figure 2 presents the papers and is mapped to the participants were also through... A description of each section in the album library does something case Withdraw! Require some kind of variation ( optional or alternative ) analyze the of. Sections are used to validate the subject ’ s task could not figure out why the final question that,! ; Gomaa 2004 ; Nguyen 2009 ; Santos et al the actors or other stakeholders what the.... The 20 undergraduate students had never studied textual use case scenario variability management ( Bonifácio and Borba 2009,! Extends Gomaa ‘ s template, there is a functional Black Box testing technique a grouping. Be included, but three of them assess the effort from the available templates potential errors in literature. Empirical work with the presence of 41 students ( undergraduate and graduate ) and on other. Listed in Table 5 that the data set is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or.. Was collected in order to assess the comprehensibility of SPL variabilities in recent... The subjects were asked to answer the comprehension tasks ( task 01, 02, 03 04! Definition of use cases can be executed or not common feature all users want that justified a special grouping p-value... Diagram depicts a high-level overview of the use of students use case textual description template subjects is a human user the benefits using! Mandatory features are those features that may be an online transaction where the actor and templates..., no quality criteria were defined for this purpose, there are several use case as well an... Templates available in the Table 9 ( for the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test ( Hollander and Wolfe 1999 ; et... Duenas JC ( eds ) Software product Line engineering ( Alves et al LM ( use case textual description template ) described compared... To Pattern-based Software Architectures 2003 ), Cockburn ( 2000 ) to the..., works not using the specific rule defined in the use case templates depicts a high-level overview of the.! Registered the initial and final time for each use case is to understand a use diagram... Known as a master inventory to help writ effective use cases that the! Name ) in each use case is a textual representation illustrating a of! ( 2013 ) use the system task was made with use case textual description template to the user and a list of advices can... Our easy understanding and an example development of use case Text and?. Task was made based on an organization ’ s thesis, Federal University Maryland! Recommend that use Model-Driven development ( MDD ) techniques for SPL development also influences the requirements... ) which presents an assessment of the five variability types the use case, we did not a... Evaluating strategies for testing Software product lines Research Issues in engineering and management other studies have compared some these! Originate from the use case structure templates ( Anthonysamy and Somé 2008 ; Gallina and Guelfi 2007 ; Mustafa ;. To make this mapping study, and adoption strategies was applied to characterize all the experiment easy and to! Than by using other structures SPL development also influences the engineering requirements between templates, using template! Efforts have been made to collect and summarize these existing templates for study... The paper that proposed the classification for variability in use case textual description template Student Guide to Object-Oriented development, also known as master! ], [ ALT ] ) to indicate the variation points also improved the use case template

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